Clinical psychology Although clinical and counseling psychologists and psychiatrists share the same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training, outlook, and methodologies are often different. Perhaps the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physiciansand, as such, psychiatrists are apt to use the medical model to assess mental health problems and to also employ psychotropic medications as a method of addressing mental health problems. In three US states Illinois, Louisiana, and New Mexicosome psychologists with post-doctoral pharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for certain mental health disorders upon agreement with the patient's physician. Such tests help to inform diagnostic decisions and treatment planning.
Psychological theories are valuable for guiding practice in educationmental healthbusiness, and other domains. They provide answers to intrinsically interesting questions concerning many kinds of thinking including perception, emotion, learning, and problem-solving.
For example, the theory map for moral judgment identifies a positive association between feeling empathy and seeing a vulnerable patient, and a negative association between feeling empathy and emotion regulation.
Such associations may be empirically valid, but associations do not provide the causal information that serves to explain why people do what they do, and that guides interventions in the world to deal with practical problems.
Maps of association fall short of explanatory theories. So what is a psychological theory?
In physics, theories are usually sets of mathematical equations that identify causal factors. Psychology is too messy to admit theories of this kind. Better methodological role models come from biology and medicine.
Theories in biology usually consist of descriptions of mechanisms, which are combinations of connected parts whose interactions produce regular changes.
For example, in geneticsthe parts are cells, genes, proteins, and other entities that interact to produce inheritance and selection.
Medical theories are aimed at explaining and treating disease and usually operate by indicating how mechanisms that are useful for bodily functioning can break down, for example when arteries are blocked during a heart attack.
Analogously, we can look for mechanistic explanations in psychology at two levels: Since the cognitive revolution in the s and s, psychology has employed explanations in terms of mental representations such as concepts, schemas, and rules.
These are the parts of mental systems that interact with each other through computational processes such as inference and spreading activation.
The operations of these psychological mechanisms have been spelled out with sufficient precision to run computer simulations on cognitive architectures such as ACT and Soar. A cognitive architecture is a general proposal about the representations and processes that produce thought.
A good strategy for psychologists who want to theorize about their empirical work is to try to show how phenomena can be causally explained by the operations of a cognitive architecture. But not all cognitive architectures invoke symbolic, verbal thinking.
Hence an alternative strategy for psychological theorizing is to show that phenomena result from neural mechanisms. It has many explanatory applications, ranging from motor control to consciousness.
All of these cognitive architectures are genuine theories in that they provide descriptions of mechanisms that causally explain a wide range of phenomena.Text Preview.
What do psychologists mean by ‘theory of mind?’ Discuss the claim that theory of mind is an evolved adaptation. Evolution is a fact. Developmental psychology is a scientific approach which aims to explain growth, change and consistency though the lifespan.
Developmental psychology looks at how thinking, feeling, and behavior change throughout a person’s yunusemremert.com: Saul Mcleod. Existential Theory: What It Is And How Psychologists Apply It. Updated September 04, These answers may or may not have to mean for you.
If you continue to examine this question, you can go deeper to learn who you are more essentially, including your abiding preferences, attitudes, thought processes, and ways of relating to others.
A theory is a based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence. Learn more about what a theory is and how it can be used in psychology. It is often used in to mean a guess, hunch, or supposition. Advocated by famous psychologists such as John B.
Watson and B.F. Skinner, behavioral theories dominated psychology during the early half of the. Meaning of psychologist. What does psychologist mean? Proper usage and pronunciation (in phonetic transcription) of the word psychologist.
Raymond B. Cattell; Raymond Bernard Cattell (American psychologist (born in England) who developed a broad theory of human behavior based on multivariate research ()).
Learn how psychology compares to other sciences and find out about the various branches of psychology. Psychology is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it might affect behavior.