Writing The act of writing contains its own inner tensions.
This handout will help you understand how present simple, past simple, and present perfect verb tenses are used in academic writing. Use this as your first choice unless you have a good reason to use another tense.
Specifically, the present simple is used: To make general statements, conclusions, or interpretations about previous research or data, focusing on what is known now The data suggest … The research shows ….
To cite a previous study or finding without mentioning the researcher in the sentence: The research often provides an example that supports a general statement or a finding in your research.
However, look at examples of the Methods and Results sections in journals in your fields to check that this is good advice for you to follow. In many fields, the passive voice is most usual in methods sections, although the active voice may be possible.
We conducted a secondary data analysis … Public Health Descriptional statistical tests and t-student test were used for statistical analysis. Since the present perfect is a present tense, it implies that the result is still true and relevant today.
The subject of active present perfect verbs is often general: Researchers have found, Studies have suggested. The present simple could also be used here, but the present perfect focuses more on what has been done than on what is known to be true now present simple.
In the following example, there are two opposite findings, so neither is the accepted state of knowledge: Some studies have shown that girls have significantly higher fears than boys after trauma Pfefferbaum et al.
Psychology A new topic can be introduced with this structure: There have been several investigations into … The present perfect forms a connection between the past previous research and the present your study. So, you say whathas been found and then how you will contribute to the field.
This is also useful when you want to point out a gap in the existing research. More recently, advances have been made using computational hydrodynamics to study the evolution of SNRs in multidimensions … citation … [previous research] However, a similar problem exists in the study of SNR dynamics.
The passive voice allows you to move the subject of your research into a place in the sentence where it will have more focus. You can also use the present perfect to tell the history of your idea what has created it?
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Hawes, Thomas, and Sarah Thomas. Penrose, Ann, and Steven Katz. Writing in the Sciences: Exploring the Conventions of Scientific Discourse. Swales, John, and Christine B. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills.
University of Michigan Press, Friday, October 9,9:The website for the Writing Center at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Skip to Main Content; The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Writing Assistance.
Grammar and Usage; Citing Sources; Advanced Writers Support Program (AWSP) Start by browsing “Handouts and Materials.” UNC-Chapel Hill. The Writing Center’s main location is Student and Academic Services Building (SASB) North with a second location at Greenlaw Hall, Room Schedule appointments, submit drafts for an online writing appointment and find writing handouts at yunusemremert.com S.
Columbia Street Chapel Hill, NC (Google Maps for directions) These HSL top pick "handouts" from the UNC Writing Center are specifically chosen for master's and professional doctoral students in the health sciences.
UNC Writing Center Video Demo: Understanding Assignments. You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout (just click print) and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The Writing Center • Campus Box # • SASB North Suite • UNC-CH • Chapel Hill, NC • CSSAC Home.
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