His father, Lycortaswas a prominent, land-owning politician and member of the governing class who became strategos commanding general of the Achaean League. He developed an interest in horse riding and hunting, diversions that later commended him to his Roman captors.
See Article History Ancient Italic people, any of the peoples diverse in origin, language, traditions, stage of development, and territorial extension who inhabited pre-Roman Italya region heavily influenced by neighbouring Greecewith its well-defined national characteristics, expansive vigour, and aesthetic and intellectual maturity.
Italy attained a unified ethnolinguistic, political, and cultural physiognomy only after the Roman conquest, yet its most ancient peoples remain anchored in the names of the regions of Roman Italy— LatiumCampaniaApuliaBruttium, LucaniaSamnium, Picenum, UmbriaEtruriaVenetiaand Liguria.
They created the first great civilization on the peninsula, whose influence on the Romans as well as on present-day culture is increasingly recognized.
Evidence suggests that it was the Etruscans who taught the Romans the alphabet and numerals, along with many elements of architecture, art, religion, and dress.
The toga was an Etruscan invention, and the Etruscan-style Doric column rather than the Greek version became a mainstay of architecture of both Scipio and hannibal character analysis Renaissance and the later Classical revival. In Latin their country was Tuscia or Etruria.
According to the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus flourished c. Geography and natural resources Ancient Etruria lay in central Italy, bounded on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea recognized early by the Greeks as belonging to the Tyrrhenoion the north by the Arno River, and on the east and south by the Tiber River.
This area corresponds to a large part of modern Tuscany as well as to sections of Latium and Umbria. The chief natural resources of the region, undoubtedly playing a crucial role in Etruscan commerce and urban development, were the rich deposits of metal ores found in both northern and southern Etruria.
In the south, in the maritime territory stretching between the first great Etruscan cities, Tarquinii and Caere modern Cerveterithe low-lying Tolfa Mountains provided copper, iron, and tin.
These minerals also were found inland at Mount Amiata, the highest mountain in Etruria, in the vicinity of the city of Clusium modern Chiusi. The city of Populonialocated on the coast, played a leading role in this industry, as did the adjacent island of Elba, evidently renowned from an early date for the wealth of its deposits.
The forests of Etruria constituted another major natural resource, providing abundant firewood for metallurgical operations as well as timber for the building of ships. The Etruscans were famous, or perhaps infamous, for their maritime activity; they dominated the seas on the western coast of Italy, and their reputation as pirates instilled fear around the Mediterranean.
Their prosperity through the centuries, however, seems also to have been founded on a stout agricultural tradition; as late as bce, when Scipio Africanus was outfitting an expedition against Hannibal, the Etruscan cities were able to supply impressive amounts of grain as well as weapons and materials for shipbuilding.
Inasmuch as no Etruscan literary works have survived, the chronology of Etruscan history and civilization has been constructed on the basis of evidence, both archaeological and literary, from the better-known civilizations of Greece and Rome as well as from those of Egypt and the Middle East. Contact with Greece began around the time that the first Greek colony in Italy was founded c.
Thereafter, numerous Greek and Middle Eastern objects were imported into Etruria, and these items, together with Etruscan artifacts and works of art displaying Greek or Oriental influence, have been used to generate relatively precise dates along with more general ones. Etruscan culture became absorbed into Roman civilization during the 1st century bce and thereafter disappeared as a recognizable entity.
An Etruscan religious literature did exist, and evidence suggests that there may have been a body of historical literature and drama as well. The emperor Claudius died 54 ce wrote a history of the Etruscans in 20 books, now lost, which was based on sources still preserved in his day.
The language continued to be used in a religious context until late antiquity; the final record of such use relates to the invasion of Rome by Alaric, chief of the Visigothsin ce, when Etruscan priests were summoned to conjure lightning against the barbarians.
There are more than 10, known Etruscan inscriptions, with new ones being discovered each year. These are mainly short funerary or dedicatory inscriptions, found on ash urns and in tombs or on objects dedicated in sanctuaries.
Others are found on engraved bronze Etruscan mirrors, where they label mythological figures or give the name of the owner, and on coinsdiceand pottery. It had originally been a book of linen cloth, which at some date was cut up into strips to be wrapped around a mummy.
With about 1, words, written in black ink on the linen, it is the longest existing Etruscan text; it contains a calendar and instructions for sacrifice, sufficient to give some idea of Etruscan religious literature.
From Italy come an important religious text, inscribed on a tile at the site of ancient Capuaand an inscription on a boundary stone at Perugianoteworthy for its juridical content.
The few Etruscan-Latin bilingual inscriptions, all funerary, have little importance with respect to improving knowledge of Etruscan. But inscribed gold plaques found at the site of the ancient sanctuary of Pyrgithe port city of Caereprovide two texts, one in Etruscan and the other in Phoenicianof significant length about 40 words and of analogous content.
They are the equivalent of a bilingual inscription and thus offer substantial data for the elucidation of Etruscan by way of a known language—Phoenician.
The Etruscan texts are largely legible. The alphabet derives from a Greek alphabet originally learned from the Phoenicians. It was disseminated in Italy by the colonists from the island of Euboea during the 8th century bce and adapted to Etruscan phonetics; the Latin alphabet was ultimately derived from it.
In its turn the Etruscan alphabet was diffused at the end of the Archaic period [c. The real problem with the Etruscan texts lies in the difficulty of understanding the meaning of the words and grammatical forms.Auto Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters.
Use up arrow (for mozilla firefox browser alt+up arrow) and down arrow (for mozilla firefox browser alt+down arrow) to review and enter to select. The Romans’ destruction of Carthage after the Third Punic War erased any Carthaginian historical record of Hannibal’s life.
What we know of him comes exclusively from Roman historians who had every interest in minimizing his success, exaggerating his failures, and disparaging his character.
Arguments for and against the claim that the Phoenician/Punic practiced child sacrifice by M'hamed Hassine Fantar and Lawrence E. Stager and Jospeh A Greene, as well as a letter in support of M'hamed Fantar's view.
The Strategist is a character whose primary job is to think up intricate and ingenious ways to defeat the enemy. The Strategist is often in a supporting role, but may be the hero as well.
In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; Enotria, wine-producing land; Ausonia, land of the Ausonians; Hesperia, land to the west (of Greece); Tyrrhenia, etc.
The name Italy, which seems to have been taken from vitulus, to signify a land abounding in cattle, was applied at first to a very limited territory.
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