The need for new approaches to natural resource management arises from the relatively new, problematic demands posed by the concept of sustainable development. This chapter examines these changes through the outcomes of two major United Nations conferences. The importance of information, integration and participation are noted. Next an outline is provided of the way in which science has changed to involve people more closely in research and development.
The Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: In the past, when the industry let these gases escape, vegetation became scorched, crops destroyed, and cattle crippled. Today, with the development of sophisticated air-pollution control technology, less of the fluoride escapes into the atmosphere, and the type of pollution that threatened the survival of some communities in the s and 60s, is but a thing of the past at least in the US and other wealthy countries.
Communities add hydrofluorosilicic acid to their water supplies as the primary fluoride chemical for water fluoridation. Meanwhile, if the phosphate industry has its way, it may soon be distributing another of its by-products to communities across the country.
That waste product is radium, which may soon be added to a roadbed near you — if the EPA buckles and industry has its way. Effects of Fluoride Pollution Central Phd thesis on air pollution knows it well. So too does Garrison Montana, Cubatao Brazil, and any other community where phosphate industries have had inefficient, or non-existent, pollution control: Something in the air destroyed the crops.
Anyone could see it… They noticed it first in Grain yields cut in half…Finally, a greater disaster revealed the source of the trouble. It was identified by veterinarians.
There was no doubt. Fluorosis — swollen joints, falling teeth, pain until cattle lie down and die. The cause — fluorine poisoning from the air. When this ore is processed into water-soluble phosphate via the addition of sulfuric acidthe fluoride content of the ore is vaporized into the air, forming highly toxic gaseous compounds hydrogen fluoride and silicon tetrafluoride.
A cow crawling on his front two legs as a result of crippling fluoride poisoning. In the past, when the industry had little, if any, pollution control, the fluoride gases were frequently emitted in large volumes into surrounding communities, causing serious environmental damage.
Reproduction fell off and when a cow did have a calf, it was also affected by this malady or was a stillborn. As in Polk County, and other communities downwind of fluoride emissions, the cattle in Garrison were poisoned by fluoride.
As described in a article from Good Housekeeping: Some lay in the pasture, barely able to move. Others limped and staggered on swollen legs, or painfully sank down and tried to graze on their knees… Ingested day after day, the excessive fluoride had caused tooth and bone disease in the cattle, so that they could not tolerate the anguish of standing or walking.
Even eating or drinking was an agony. Their ultimate fate was dehydration, starvation — and death. Litigation from Fluoride Damage Damage to vegetation and livestockcaused by fluoride emissions from large industry, has resulted, as one might expect, in a great deal of expensive litigation.
While Weinstein was referring to fluoride pollution in general, his comments give an indication of the problem facing the phosphate industry — one of the most notorious emitters of fluoride — in its early days.
So too does an estimate from Dr. Another review on air pollution reached the same conclusion. According to Ender Scrubbing away the problem Due to the inevitable liabilities that fluoride pollution presented, and to an increasingly stringent set of environmental regulations, the phosphate industry began cleaning up its act.
In the past, much of this volatile material was vented to the atmosphere, contributing heavily to pollution of the air and land surrounding the manufacturing site.
But today fluorine recovery is increasingly necessary because of stringent environmental restrictions which demand drastic reductions in the quantities of volatile and toxic fluorine compounds emitted into the waste gases.
Little Demand for Silicofluorides Considering the great demand among big industry for fluoride chemicals as a material used in a wide variety of commercial products and industrial processes, the phosphate industry could have made quite a handsome profit selling its fluoride wastes to industry.
This was indeed the hope among some industry analysts, including the authors of the review noted above Denzinger However, the US phosphate industry has thus far been unable to take advantage of this market.Be at the forefront of the mega trends driving the future of the industry—connected technologies, efficiency, electrification, alternative fuels, sustainability, and more.
Magda Havas began research on acid rain and metal pollution in and worked at the Smoking Hills in the Canadian arctic, in Ontario near the INCO and Falconbridge metal smelters, and at Hubbard Brook in New yunusemremert.com was Science Advisor to the Canadian Coalition on Acid Rain and her research (and that of others) helped bring in clean air .
Environmental Science and Pollution Research (ESPR) serves the international community in all areas of Environmental Science and related subjects with emphasis on chemical compounds. It reports from a broad interdisciplinary. NIT Jamshedpur The Cradle of technical excellence Academic Notices.
As a leading sustainable technology provider, we offer flexible air pollution control solutions that minimize emissions and ensure that specific requirements are continuously met. Learn more yunusemremert.com DR KEVIN MACDONALD, AUTHOR, PSYCHOLOGIST AND HISTORIAN, is a Professor of Psychology at the California State University in Long Beach California.
Kevin MacDonald, PhD: Ever since the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in , Jewish organizations have.