Newmark and the translation of metaphors english language essay

Conclusion of the Reading Report Translated work, to some extent, needs fluency criteria which can be accessed by readers, critics, reviewers, professionals, publishing house owners, etc. Accessed on Saturday, March 14, at

Newmark and the translation of metaphors english language essay

Therefore, he taxonomized different types of metaphors on the basis of their originality and boldness.

Newmark and the translation of metaphors english language essay

What comes below is an explanation about his taxonomy as well as a quick view on his suggested strategies to translate each type of metaphor. Dead metaphor is the one whose image is forgotten through heavy use.

A great number of ordinary vocabulary in any language are dead metaphors. Words such as mouth, circle, drop, fall, rise, arm, space, field, line top, bottom and foot are actually among the dead metaphors of the English language. The word 'foot' in 'at the foot of the hill' is a dead metaphor.

Metaphors of this type can be classified into three groups. The first group includes the ones which provokethe metaphoric image in mind to some extent e. The second groupincludes metonyms e. Ahd finally, the third group includes the non-technical words e.

It is out of my depth. The metaphors in the final group are in close relation with our daily life. They usually appear in two structures: So, they should be upheld in vocative texts while in the informative texts such as public announcements, instructions and propogations the translator can get rid of them in any proper way.

However, it can be replaced by a simile or even a dead metaphor when it has no suitable cultural equivalent.

Perhaps the only noticeable difference between these two types of metaphors is the style of the text within which they are applied. Standard metaphors are usually used in the informal texts as a way of expressing a mental or physical situation in brief. He is on the eve of getting married.

Keep the pot boiling. The most common way of translating standard metaphors is to produce the SL image in the TL. However, other ways of rendering this type of metaphor to the TL such as reducing it to sense which will result in the addition or the omission of some parts and will consequently influence the emotive force of the metaphor or translating it to simile plus sense are also possible.

Adapted metaphors include proverbs. The translators usually take great pains to do their best in the translation of this particular type of metaphor due to its magnificent cultural role in the TL.

Recent metaphors include the newly-made words or phrases which use to refer to the things and entities that have already had a name e. Original metaphor is the one which is invented by the writer. Literal translation is the best choice for the translation of original metaphors because: Examples for original metaphors are: And I can hear 'the clear sound of solitude, opening and closing its window'.

Let's weight the night of a villiage, the slumber of a gazelle. Where the Norweyen banners flout the sky, and fan our people cold. In general, Newmarkp. Reproducing the same image in the TL2. Translation of metaphor by simile, retaining the image4. Translation of metaphor or simile by simile plus sense, or occasionally metaphor plus sense5.

Conversion of metaphor to sense6. If the metaphor is redundant or serves no practical purpose, there is a case for its deletion, together with its sense component7.

Translation of metaphor by the same metaphor combined with sense. The addition of a gloss or an explanation by the translator is to ensure that the metaphor will be understood 4.

The cognitive approach to metaphor According to the cognitive semanticians, the notion of metaphor stands for the recognition or expression of abstract concepts in the form of empirical ones.

Lakoff and Johnson believed that the nature of metaphor is to understand one thing on the basis of another. Perhaps this attitude towards metaphor is a reaction to questioning the way we represent or understand the issues such as love, justice, time or the ideas which belong to the abstract domains.

Lakoff and Johnson claimed that the conceptual system of man's mind is based on a restricted set of empirical notions which root in our experiences. These empirical notions include spatial orientations up-down, in-out, front-back, on-off, deep-shallow, central-peripheralphysical concepts about world objects and containers and a set of experiences and fundamental behaviors eat, walk, sleep and the like.Metaphors can become a translation problem, since transferring from one language and culture to another is difficult.

“ Translation of metaphor will be always seen as problematic, no matter which approach to metaphor is chosen” (olivera, ). Metaphors can become a translation problem, since transferring from one language and culture to another is difficult.

“ Translation of metaphor will be always seen as problematic, no matter which approach to metaphor is chosen” (olivera, ). Jan 05,  · Newmark believed that author’s metaphors should be rendered as close as possible to the original, because: a) the author's metaphor manifests individual style and personality of the author and b) the author's metaphors contribute to the enrichment of the vocabulary of the target language.

THE METAPHORIC DIMENSION OF ECONOMIC TEXTS The Translation of Economic Metaphors The paper aims at presenting the main types of the most commonly used English economic metaphors, focussing on the translation strategies that could be used for rendering them into Russian.

Key terms: the Shahnameh, figurative language, metaphor, image metaphor of color, translation procedure 1. Introduction Translation, as Catford () defines it, is “an act of transference, in which a text from the source language is replaced by its equivalent in the target language” (p.

20). 2 1. Introduction This essay will be dealing with the translation of books written for children, specifically such translated from Swedish (the source language, SL) to English (the target language, TL).

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