Rating False About this rating Origin One of the more unusual and complicated theories associated with the sovereign citizen and tax protester movements is the belief that lawyers who are members of bar associations in the United States are, in fact, agents of the British crown and do not have legitimate status in American courts. Almost every part of this is factually inaccurate. For one thing, the International Bar Association was founded innot in the s.
Indeed, it is necessary in all criminal trials to reconstruct facts from past events, and eyewitnesses are commonly very important to this effort.
Psychological scientists, however, have challenged many of the assumptions of the legal system and the general public regarding the accuracy of eyewitness accounts.
Particularly dominant in the psychological science literature are the views that memory reports are malleable i. The principal methods used by psychological scientists for examining the accuracy of eyewitnesses involve creating events that unsuspecting people witness and then collecting their reports about what they saw.
Because the events were created by the researchers, these reports can be scored for their accuracy and completeness. In this way, researchers can systematically manipulate various factors such as stress, view, the use of misleading questions, the instructions given prior to a lineup to determine what variables influence accuracy and completeness.
This body of research has its programmatic origins in the mid- to late s, but it received a large boost to its credibility in the s, when forensic DNA testing began to uncover convictions of innocent people.
Over 75 percent of these exonerations are cases involving mistaken eyewitness identification. The discovery of these mistaken identifications and resulting wrongful convictions has been a jarring event for the legal system and threatens public faith in the criminal justice system.
Accordingly, eyewitness research today is having a larger impact on the legal system as the legal system recognizes that eyewitness errors are leading to faulty trial outcomes.
The scientific literature on eyewitness testimony that has emerged is an important development in showing the relevance of social science for helping to solve problems in the legal system.
An increased use of eyewitness experts at trial and revisions to how eyewitnesses are interviewed and how lineups are conducted represent concrete legal system improvements resulting from this line of research.
General Overviews Loftus is a superb, easy-to-read entry to the eyewitness area. Despite its age, it remains one of the most cited works in the field and captures many of the core ideas that still hold prominence, especially the idea of post-event memory malleability.
Another core idea that was developed around the same time involved distinguishing between system variables and estimator variables. Wells articulates the view that a premium should be placed on the study of system variables, which can be used to improve the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, rather than estimator variables, which can be used only to estimate the chances of inaccurate testimony.
Another central distinction in the eyewitness area is between event memory and person memory. Event memory focuses on recall of details and interviewing techniques e.
Person memory focuses primarily on the identification of perpetrators from lineups and show-ups as well as facial composites created by witnesses. The first handbook in the eyewitness area is a two-volume set in which the first volume, Toglia, et al.
These two volumes have chapters contributed by the top eyewitness experts and represent the most comprehensive sourcebook to date on eyewitness issues. At a more general level, Loftus and Loftus is a very important article because it shows that there is no scientific basis to presume that long-term memories, once stored, are permanent.
As a consequence, such techniques could lead to the creation of false memories. Setting the record or video camera straight on memory: The video camera model of memory and other memory myths.
Separating fact from fiction. Memory mechanisms are explained in a way that does not require preexisting knowledge of brain sciences.Victoria Legal Aid Castan Centre for Human Rights Law Conference on 22 July this small number of offenders should not overshadow how we view or reform the whole system.
The empirical data shows an overall decline in youth offending over a inaccurate and as one of the young people at the Summit indicated, hurtful.
Article Review #1: Media Literacy Hegemony indirectly implies control in the political context before it has been associated in media studies. The media, especially in democratic countries, is regarded as the protector of freedom and the values of democracy. Most troubling of all, Lisak’s material is being codified in law enforcement policies, legal precedents, and judicial guidelines at the local, state, and federal levels.
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And now, those simple gifts can really pay off in our Sweet and Simple Scholarship! petent legal reporting, which fuels the American public's anti- court sentiment 17 and fosters inaccurate views of the actual work- ings of the judicial system.
Here's my full essay for the 'positive or negative development' question that we've been looking at over the last few weeks. In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative development?
In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, .