These civilizations appear to have developed in response to their environment and in reaction to their human need for survival and security. The first human civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River Valley, and China but not Mesoamerica all developed around rivers; as such they were called alluvial, or located in the plains surrounding a river. For Mesopotamia and Egypt, controlling where the water went, using irrigation, was critical to their survival. Irrigation allowed water to be used farther away from the river itself, thereby allowing more people to use the river water.
Neo-Assyrian period, 9th to 7th centuries BC. The earliest language written in Mesopotamia was Sumerianan agglutinative language isolate. Along with Sumerian, Semitic languages were also spoken in early Mesopotamia. Akkadian came to be the dominant language during the Akkadian Empire and the Assyrian empires, but Sumerian was retained for administrative, religious, literary and scientific purposes.
Different varieties of Akkadian were used until the end of the Neo-Babylonian period. Old Aramaicwhich had already become common in Mesopotamia, then became the official provincial administration language of first the Neo-Assyrian Empireand then the Achaemenid Empire: Akkadian fell into disuse, but both it and Sumerian were still used in temples for some centuries.
The last Akkadian texts date from the late 1st century AD. Cuneiform literally means "wedge-shaped", due to the triangular tip of the stylus used for impressing signs on wet clay.
The standardized form of each cuneiform sign appears to have been developed from pictograms. The early logographic system of cuneiform script took many years to master.
Thus, only a limited number of individuals were hired as scribes to be trained in its use. Massive archives of texts were recovered from the archaeological contexts of Old Babylonian scribal schools, through which literacy was disseminated.
During the third millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerian and the Akkadian language users, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian literature Libraries were extant in towns and temples during the Babylonian Empire.
An old Sumerian proverb Early civilizations mesopotamia china that "he who would excel in the school of the scribes must rise with the dawn. A considerable amount of Babylonian literature was translated from Sumerian originals, and the language of religion and law long continued to be the old agglutinative language of Sumer.
Vocabularies, grammars, and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students, as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of obscure words and phrases. The characters of the syllabary were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists were drawn up.
Many Babylonian literary works are still studied today. Each division contains the story of a single adventure in the career of Gilgamesh. The whole story is a composite product, although it is probable that some of the stories are artificially attached to the central figure.
Science and technology Main article: Babylonian mathematics Mesopotamian mathematics and science was based on a sexagesimal base 60 numeral system. This is the source of the minute hour, the hour day, and the degree circle. The Sumerian calendar was based on the seven-day week.
This form of mathematics was instrumental in early map-making. The Babylonians also had theorems on how to measure the area of several shapes and solids. They measured the circumference of a circle as three times the diameter and the area as one-twelfth the square of the circumference, which would be correct if p were fixed at 3.
The volume of a cylinder was taken as the product of the area of the base and the height; however, the volume of the frustum of a cone or a square pyramid was incorrectly taken as the product of the height and half the sum of the bases.
This measurement for distances eventually was converted to a time-mile used for measuring the travel of the Sun, therefore, representing time. Babylonian astronomy From Sumerian times, temple priesthoods had attempted to associate current events with certain positions of the planets and stars.
This continued to Assyrian times, when Limmu lists were created as a year by year association of events with planetary positions, which, when they have survived to the present day, allow accurate associations of relative with absolute dating for establishing the history of Mesopotamia.
The Babylonian astronomers were very adept at mathematics and could predict eclipses and solstices. Scholars thought that everything had some purpose in astronomy. Most of these related to religion and omens.
Mesopotamian astronomers worked out a month calendar based on the cycles of the moon. They divided the year into two seasons: The origins of astronomy as well as astrology date from this time. During the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Babylonian astronomers developed a new approach to astronomy.
They began studying philosophy dealing with the ideal nature of the early universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems.
This was an important contribution to astronomy and the philosophy of science and some scholars have thus referred to this new approach as the first scientific revolution. In Seleucid and Parthian times, the astronomical reports were thoroughly scientific; how much earlier their advanced knowledge and methods were developed is uncertain.
The Babylonian development of methods for predicting the motions of the planets is considered to be a major episode in the history of astronomy.
The only Greek-Babylonian astronomer known to have supported a heliocentric model of planetary motion was Seleucus of Seleucia b.The civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and China were all different but were also developed similar ways of doing things.
The political, economic and intellectual outlooks of these ancient peoples say a lot about their ways of life. By roughly to years ago, agriculture was well under way in several regions including Ancient Egypt, around the Nile River; the Indus Valley civilization; Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; and Ancient China, along the Yellow and Yangtze rivers.
Education in the earliest civilizations The Old World civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and North China. The history of civilization started in the Middle East about bce, Even in the early civilizational stage, harmonious human relations, rituals, and music formed the curriculum.
ancient Mesopotamia, egypt, india, and china. Home. Mesotopamia Egypt. Indus. China. Comparing & Contrasting the Ancient River Valley Civilizations Ancient River Valley Civilizations.
Mesopotamia v.s. Egypt. Same. Homes were both cube shaped and built with mud clay blocks ;. In ancient China, the group that presided at the rites and ceremonies honoring the spirits of departed ancestors was the patriarchal heads of the families In regard to gaining or losing the Mandate of Heaven, the Chinese spoke of titan, an impersonal heavenly power Transcript of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River, and China.
Ancient River Valley Civilization: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River, and China Andrea Pham and Christine Mai Mesopotamia Egypt Indus River China Compare and Contrast Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Egypt .