Mark has an interesting story to tell — he was a priest, who then left Christianity and found an alternative in Greek philosophy particularly Plato and depth psychology. As for me, I was never a Christian, but found a form of practical spirituality in ancient philosophy. Here are some initial thoughts, please chime in with your own thoughts too. We should also note that the Stoics were monotheists — they followed Heraclitus in believing in one Logos.
The Chariot Plato first presents the image of the chariot, a composite figure: This composite he explicitly calls a model of the human soul or psyche. The individual components of the model are not described in much detail, but since Plato considers the same tri-partite structure of the soul in the Republicwritten about the same time, we have a good idea as to his meaning Lovibond, Plato, however, through myth, is able to express both rational and extra-rational knowledge.
In the end one is left with the distinct impression that Plato's is the better model. The Dark Horse Of the two models, the most closely corresponding parts are the dark horse and Freud's id. The dark horse corresponds to appetites, concupiscence, and bodily desires and lusts.
In Platonic psychology, this part of the soul is called the epithumetikon. Beyond this much we need say little -- this soul element, and its characteristic problems, is familiar enough, both experientially and at the relgio-cultural level.
The horse is unruly and causes great problems for Plato's charioteer. But, as in Freud's model, where it imparts energy or libido for general motivation of the psyche, so here too it is needed to draw the chariot.
What is required, then, is a training of the horse -- the sublimation of Freud's system -- so that it provides properly-directed energy.
The Charioteer The charioteer, who drives the chariot and commands the horses, with special attention needed to the unruly one, corresponds to the Freudian ego, which manages conflict between the id and super-ego the latter, to anticipate, roughly corresponding to the white horse.
However, unlike Freud's ego, which, in a sense, evolves or develops in the psyche specifically to broker disputes between the id and superego, Plato's charioteer has a more definite goal and destiny: In Plato's psychology, the charioteer is associated with Reason and the reasoning element of the mind, and called logistikon, derived from the Greek word, logos.
The White Horse The white horse stands for the element of the psyche associated courage, boldness, heroism, 'spiritedness' and what some call the irascible.
Call to mind the image of the hero on the white charger.
All the rich and varied mythos and connotations associated with a noble white steed apply. This horse represents what is termed thumos in Plato's psychology.
As indicated above, it roughly corresponds to the Freudian super-ego; however this is the point of greatest difference between the two models. In Freud's system, the super-ego mostly plays counterbalance to the id; further, there is a tendency to regard the superego as something learned -- a collective set of socialized rules of right-and-wrong internalized by a developing child.
In that sense, the superego and the id are of different basic logical categories. In Plato's analogy, however, the white horse and black horses are of the same logical order, and this is no doubt significant.
Like the black team-mate, the white horse is decidedly passionate, ambitious, energetic, and goal-seeking. It imparts equal force or drive to the chariot.1. Introduction. This supplementary document discusses the history of Trinity theories. Although early Christian theologians speculated in many ways on the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, no one clearly and fully asserted the doctrine of the Trinity as explained at the top of the main entry until around the end of the so-called Arian Controversy.
"The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our own ways—I to die, and you to live.
Which is better God only knows" (Edman , p. 88). Tomorrow is the big event on Stoicism for Everyday Life in London, at which Mark Vernon and I will be discussing the relationship between Stoicism and Christianity. Mark has an interesting story to tell – he was a priest, who then left Christianity and found an alternative in Greek philosophy.
Here begins the second part of this work, which treats of the origin, history, and destinies of the two cities, the earthly and the heavenly. In the first place, Augustine shows in this book how the two cities were formed originally, by the separation of the good and bad angels; and takes occasion.
Tomorrow is the big event on Stoicism for Everyday Life in London, at which Mark Vernon and I will be discussing the relationship between Stoicism and Christianity.
Mark has an interesting story to tell – he was a priest, who then left Christianity and found an alternative in Greek philosophy. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (born June 28, , Geneva, Switzerland—died July 2, , Ermenonville, France), Swiss-born philosopher, writer, and political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation.